仲欧脱碳科技 采访系列｜第12集：黄涛- 科学委员会成员
Prof. Tao HUANG，获得意大利都灵理工大学电气工程博士学位。他拥有上海交通大学电力系统与自动化硕士学位，以及电力系统与自动化和金融两个本科学位。他目前是都灵理工大学能源转型与安全实验室的终身教授（II fascia），所属于都灵理工大学能源中心和能源系。他还是上海交通大学的副研究员，西华大学的兼职教授，以及河南工业大学的兼职教授。
Prof. Tao HUANG, received his Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering from Politecnico di Torino, Italy. He holds a master’s degree in Electric Power Systems and Automation and two bachelor’s degrees in Electric Power Systems and Automation and Finance from Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China. He is currently a tenured professor (II fascia) at the Energy Transition and Security Lab at Energy Center (Torino) and Department of Energy of Politecnico di Torino. He is also an associate researcher at Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China, an adjunct chair professor at Xihua University, China, and an adjunct professor at the Polytechnic University of Henan, China.
He is currently the coordinator of the Joint Energy Transition Lab between Politecnico di Torino and Shanghai Jiaotong University, Standing Director of IEEE PES power system Relaying & control Satellite Committee-China, Power system Operation & Control Subcommittee and Director General of the Chinese Society of Electrical Engineering (CSEE) Italian Section of European Chapter. He also serves as an external International scientific advisor for the Global Energy Interconnection Research Institute (Europe), State Grid Cooperation of China (former Smart Grid Research Institute Europe of State Grid Cooperation of China) and International scientific advisor for the State Energy Smart Grid R&D Center (Shanghai, China).
Should you pick up a topic, among the several which characterize your impressive experience that you feel more closely related to the decarbonization mission, which one you could say?
I believe that the topic most closely related to the mission of decarbonization, and which aligns particularly well with my experience, is the broad concept of “energy transition.” This encompasses a wide array of factors, including policy, technology, economics, markets, and finance, among others. Given my expertise in the field of energy, particularly in electrical engineering, my inclination may be somewhat biased. However, I am particularly drawn to the idea of an electricity-centered energy transition.
The reason for this preference lies in the transformative potential of electricity within the broader energy landscape. As an efficient and versatile medium, electricity plays a pivotal role in enabling the integration of renewable energy sources at scale. It offers the means to harness and distribute clean energy across various sectors, such as transportation, industry, and residential use. Moreover, green electricity provides a pathway to electrify energy consumption, thereby reducing reliance on carbon-intensive fuels.
By focusing on electricity-centered energy transition, I believe we can drive substantial progress in decarbonizing our energy systems. It also contributes to the development and implementation of clean energy technologies, smart grids, and energy storage solutions. It also emphasizes the importance of policy, markets, and financial mechanisms to support the transition effectively.
Based on your academic and professional background, what is the main contribution you feel to provide to the worldwide urgency to reduce greenhouse gasses emission?
I believe that the primary contribution to the global imperative of reducing greenhouse gas emissions lies in spearheading the reformation of energy systems. As per estimations from the International Energy Agency (IEA), more than three-quarters of the world’s total greenhouse gas emissions can be attributed to the energy sector. Therefore, if we seek to strategically allocate our resources to drive the global shift toward decarbonization, the pivotal area for action is undoubtedly the energy transition.
In the medium term, the transition is the replacement of fossil-based energy generation with renewable sources. This transition must be complemented by substantial upgrades to our energy infrastructures to support the integration of renewables seamlessly. Electricity emerges as a vital medium, given its efficiency in harnessing renewable energy sources at a large scale. Consequently, it is imperative to encourage the electrification of various sectors of final consumption, ensuring that electricity becomes the backbone of a sustainable energy ecosystem.
Moreover, this transformative journey extends beyond electricity. Other energy commodities, such as hydrogen, synthetic gas, biofuels, and biogas, must also undergo development and co-evolution to play a significant role in decarbonization efforts. By diversifying our energy portfolio, we can better address the specific needs of different sectors and enhance overall energy resilience.
The energy transition is of course a multidisciplinary endeavor that transcends technical aspects alone. It necessitates comprehensive support from finance, policy, and markets to foster its growth and sustainability. Furthermore, this transition has the potential to stimulate economic growth by creating new industries, generating jobs, and encouraging innovation. It aligns not only with the imperative of reducing greenhouse gas emissions but also with the broader goal of fostering a more sustainable and prosperous global future.
According to your experience which one are the main challenges China has to face to reach its “dual carbon goal?
In my opinion, one of the primary challenges China encounters in achieving its “dual carbon goal” is the delicate balance it must strike between reducing its carbon footprint and sustaining its robust economic growth. This challenge arises from the inherent tension between environmental conservation and economic expansion, which requires careful policy formulation and implementation.
Furthermore, China grapples with the task of addressing disparities in development across its vast and diverse regions. These disparities encompass varying levels of economic development, education quality, technological advancement, governance effectiveness, and more. Ensuring that carbon reduction measures benefit all regions equitably while considering their unique circumstances is pivotal to achieving the dual carbon goal effectively.
This challenge is not exclusive to the dual carbon goal but pervades most national objectives, making it a broader issue that China must confront. Addressing these disparities is essential for ensuring a sustainable and inclusive transition to a low-carbon economy while maintaining overall economic growth.
To overcome these challenges, China needs to adopt a holistic approach that integrates environmental sustainability with economic and social development. This includes implementing policies that encourage green innovation, investing in renewable energy sources, and fostering cooperation among various regions to share best practices. By addressing these issues cohesively, China can advance toward its dual carbon goal while fostering balanced and harmonious development across the nation.
More specifically, in your sector of competence, which mechanisms and actions could be implemented to create virtuous synergies between China and Europe to reach carbon neutrality?
There are several mechanisms and actions for synergies between China and EU for carbon neutrality. The easiest ones may be in education and research, i.e. capability building, which can create a skilled workforce capable of driving the transition towards carbon neutrality in both regions. Also, it is easy to do collaborative research and projects, especially aimed at advancing clean energy technologies. Joint initiatives can focus on innovations in renewable energy generation, energy storage, and grid integration. These projects can facilitate knowledge exchange and technology transfer, promoting the adoption of cleaner energy solutions. Besides, there are also other aspects, such as encouraging the exchange of clean energy technologies and expertise through joint ventures, technology transfer agreements, and collaborative innovation hubs. Engaging in international forums, such as the Paris Agreement and climate summits, can provide opportunities for China and Europe to collaborate on global climate objectives. Both regions can work together to influence international climate policy and enhance their collective commitment to carbon neutrality. Coordinating energy and environmental policies can create a more conducive regulatory environment for decarbonization efforts. Sharing best practices in areas like emissions trading, carbon pricing, and renewable energy mandates can help align the policy landscape and encourage investments in clean energy. Also, China and Europe can collaborate to establish green finance mechanisms that support sustainable energy projects. These mechanisms may include green bonds, investment funds, and incentives for clean energy investments. By aligning financial incentives and regulations, both regions can attract capital for carbon-neutral initiatives. As you can see, synergies can really cover many aspects.
Carbon neutrality is a target which required holistic approach and integrated actions by all the stakeholders. It should tackle not only technical matters, but also new economic development model and social aspects. China Europe Carbon Neutral initiative by its Scientific Committee & Expert Advisory Board aims to be a platform to gather these expertise then share potential solution. Which advices and proposal you feel to share for its development and operation？
A: 我认为China Europe Carbon Neutral Initiative可以成为分享专业知识、促进合作以及推动实质性行动朝向碳中和的重要平台。为了维持其发展和运作，我觉得在碳中和的漫漫长路中，可以选取一些更实际的方面入手。正如我在之前的回答中提到的，其中最简单的可能在教育领域，即技能培训。这不仅可以在碳中和领域建立专业知识，还可以通过研讨会、认证课程和在线资源等，提高知名度。最终，它也会吸引其他利益相关者来为研究和创新提供资金支持，创造新产品和商业机会等。这也有助于被社会各个层面所包容，增加碳中和的意识，以及吸引与各类企业、非政府组织和各级政府的合作伙伴关系。建立一个协作网络可以增强倡议的影响力，促进碳中和的统一方法。
I believe the China Europe Carbon Neutral Initiative can become a vital platform for sharing expertise, fostering collaboration, and driving meaningful action towards carbon neutrality. To sustain its own development and operation, I would recommend some more practical options in the short time along the long journey towards carbon neutrality. As I mentioned in the previous answer, the easiest one may be on education, say capacity building, this would not only build expertise in the field of carbon neutrality, but also, through workshops, seminars, certified courses, and online resources, increase the visibility of the China Europe Carbon Neutral Initiative. It would eventually attract other stakeholders for financing research and innovations, creating new products and commercial opportunities, etc. This could also benefit for the social inclusion of all segments of the society to increase their awareness as well as attracting partnerships with businesses, non-governmental organizations, and governments at all levels. Building a network of collaborators can amplify the impact of the initiative and promote a unified approach to carbon neutrality.
Global warming brought disastrous effects to the natural environment, ecosystems, and economy. Due to this issue, how China’s “Dual Carbon Target” influence the way to plan a new development of energy system?
China’s “Dual Carbon Target” represents a significant and ambitious initiative, with the goal of reaching peak carbon emissions by 2030 and achieving carbon neutrality by 2060, is driving key changes in the energy sector to combat global warming. When talking about the influence on the energy systems, I think, first and foremost, the target necessitates a shift away from fossil fuels like coal, gas and oil. Now China is prioritizing cleaner energy sources, notably renewables such as wind, solar, and hydropower. This transition to low-carbon energy generation is a pivotal step in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, curbing global warming’s impact on the environment, and promoting sustainable economic growth. China is also making substantial investments in renewable energy infrastructure. This includes the construction of large-scale wind and solar farms, as well as the modernization of its grid systems to facilitate the integration of intermittent renewable energy sources. This focus on renewables aligns with the nation’s commitment to achieving carbon neutrality.
Efforts to improve energy efficiency are another essential component. Modernizing existing power plants, adopting advanced technologies, and implementing demand-side management measures are all part of China’s strategy to minimize energy waste and reduce emissions, contributing to the global fight against global warming. Furthermore, grid modernization is a key priority. A flexible and smart grid is essential for the efficient integration of renewables and the balancing of power supply and demand. It’s a crucial element in building a more sustainable and low-carbon energy infrastructure. To incentivize emission reductions, China is also introducing carbon pricing mechanisms and emission reduction targets in the power sector. This motivates companies and utilities to invest in cleaner technologies and take meaningful steps to reduce their carbon emissions. China is also actively promoting research and innovation in the energy sector. This involves developing advanced energy storage solutions, carbon capture and utilization techniques, and smart grid management systems that can accommodate the variable nature of renewable energy sources. Finally, decentralized energy systems, including microgrids and community-based renewable energy projects, are gaining importance. They offer more resilience in the face of environmental challenges and further contribute to China’s emissions reduction efforts.
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China Europe Carbon Neutral Technology aims to support and substantially contribute to China and Europe path towards carbon neutrality in a holistic and inclusive way by gathering all the stakeholders and creating solutions for each challenge.
China Europe Carbon Neutral Technology will play an active and innovative role in providing services to conceive, shape, design and accomplish the transitions needed to achieve carbon neutrality.